Study of two species of snowdrops with the help of Altami Studio program
Introduction. Voronov’s snowdrop and common snowdrop are used in traditional medicine and homeopathy for treating diseases of the nervous system. No systematic data on the standardization of domestic homeopathic raw of snowdrops are available.
Aim of research – the study of fresh homeopathic medicinal plant raw of 2 species of snowdrops, including the definition of morphological and anatomical diagnostic features for the identification of homeopathic medicinal plant raw.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The objects of the study were fresh flowering plants (all parts – Planta tota) of Voronov’s snowdrop and common snowdrop (ГомЛРС), harvested in the Botanical Garden of Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University in April 2016.
The macroscopic and microscopic examination was carried out in accordance with the requirements of State Pharmacopoeia of the Russian Federation, XIII edition: “Roots, rhizomes, bulbs, tubers, bulbotuber”, “Herbs”, “Flowers”, “Microscopic and microchemical techniques of medicinal plant raw materials and medicinal herbal preparations examination”. “Altami Bio 2” microscope (eyepiece 10 ×, lenses 4 ×, 10 ×, 40 ×, 100 ×) was used for a microscopic analysis of Voronov’s snowdrop and common snowdrop. Photographs were obtained with the help of UCMOS05100KPA digital eyepiece camera and processed in Altami Studio.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The fresh whole raw material of Voronov’s snowdrops and common snowdrop includes the whole plants (planta tota), above-ground (leaves, peduncles and flowers) and underground (bulb and roots) parts (Fig. 1).
A microscopic study of snowdrops showed that the lamina of both species is dorsoventral (Figure 2), but at the base of Voronov’s snowdrop, it has a triangular shape with long edges that curve inward, a leaf width is 3.6-4.2 mm, a number of conducting fascicles – 28 – 31. The snowdrop lamina has the form of a concave triangle with short edges, the leaf width is 2.4-3.1 mm, the number of conducting fascicles is 12-20.
Both species of snowdrop have cells of the epidermis, elongated along the length of the leaf that are rectangular with straight walls (Figure 3). The walls of the epidermal cells have clearly prominent thickenings. Stem is rounded, surrounded by 4 (rarely – 5) epidermal cells (tetra – and pendacite type). Cuticle is smooth, in some places – longitudinally wrinkled. The leaf mesophyll is indistinctly differentiated into palisade and spongy tissue, and consists of rounded cells. Several rows of mesophyll cells adjacent to the upper epidermis have slightly elongated cells in the radial direction. In the central part, the mesophyll has a loose structure, forming round air cells, which are located between the conducting fascicles. Cells with fascicles of calcium oxalate raffide are seen in the peripheral part of the mesophyll (Fig. 4). Conductive fascicles of lateral and central are collateral type. The vascular fibrous fascicle includes reticular and stellar vessels and spiral tracheids.
The study of the atomic structure of the flower showed that the epidermis of the corolla on both sides consists of polygonal straight-walled cells, almost isodiametric with papillate outgrowths and a longitudinally wrinkled structure. No stoma is found. The papillate outgrowths are more developed on the lower epidermis. Oval-shaped pollen grains, monocolpate, heteropolar with a smooth surface. The structure of the bract is similar to that of the leaf. Cells of the epidermis of the peduncle are rectangular, the walls are straight, the cuticle is even. The stoma is tetracid type, the size is similar to the stomatal complexes of the leaf. There are cells with fascicles of calcium oxalate raffide in the peripheral part of the peduncle mesophyll.
The study of the atomic structure of the flower showed that the epidermis of the corolla on both sides consists of polygonal straight-walled cells, almost isodiametric with papillate outgrowths and a longitudinally wrinkled structure. No stoma is found. The papillate outgrowths are more developed on the lower epidermis. Oval-shaped pollen grains, monocolpate, heteropolar with a smooth surface. The structure of the bract is similar to that of the leaf. Cells of the epidermis of the peduncle are rectangular, the walls are straight, the cuticle is even. The stoma is tetracid type, the size is similar to the stomatal complexes of the leaf. Еhere are cells with fascicles of calcium oxalate raffide in the peripheral part of the peduncle mesophyll.
External scales of bulbs of snowdrops are sphacelate shells with completely deformed cells of the parenchima. The outer and inner epidermis of the outer scales consists of progenochymous cells with rounded corners and lenticular thickenings (Figure 5). The storing scales are similar in structure to the leaf. Their main parenchyma consists of thin-walled round-shaped force cells filled with starch granules of round-ovate form. Large starch grains have 2-3, rarely a 4-ray crack (Figure 6), there are cells with rafids located parallel to the longitudinal axis of the bulb in the form of fascicles in the outer part of the parenchyma of the scales. The conductive fascicles of the closed collateral type with the parenchymal lining are located closer to the inner side of the scales.
In snowdrops – the root of the primary structure, the cells of the epidermis – large, with a thickened outer wall, oval in shape, elongated in the radial direction. Hairs are epidermal outgrowths. Cells of the parenchima are thin-walled, round in shape with numerous intercellular spaces of various sizes and shapes. The inner part of the cortex has oval-polygonal cells that are elongated in the radial direction. The central axial cylinder (CDC) has a small diameter. The woody part of the root consists, as a rule, of 1 large and 3 (Voronov’s snowdrop) rays of small diameter vessels. Phloem is also represented by 3 or 4 rays. The endoderm is not clearly expressed.
Thus, detailed characteristics of external signs and anatomical structure of 2 species of snowdrops are given: Voronov’s snowdrop and common snowdrop. The revealed complex of features allows to reliably carry out the species identification of homeopathic medicinal plant material. It is established that there are differences in the linear dimensions at the macro- and micro-levels. The sizes of bodies of Voronov’s snowdrops are much more that at snowdrops, that is traced and in linear sizes of cellular structures. The obtained data were used in the drafting of pharmacopoeial articles on homeopathic medicinal plant raw materials of 2 species of snowdrops.
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