Anise hyssop of “Astrakhansky 101” sort study with the help of Altami Studio program
Adapted to the conditions of the Astrakhan region, “Astrakhansky 101” sort of the anise hyssop was developed by breeding in All-Russian Research Institute of Irrigated Vegetable Growing and Melon Growing.The plant is a half-shrub 115-160 сm high, with a tetrahedral stalk, opposite leaves and shoots. Leaves are petiolar, cordate-lanceolate-shaped, edges are saw-toothed. Flowers – purple, odorous, bilabiate, collected in spike-shaped inflorescences 4-25 cm long .
There is no description of the microscopic signs of “Astrakhansky 101” sort anisic hyssop at the moment, which allows to identify the medicinal plant raw material.
Aim of research – anise hyssop of “Astrakhansky 101” sort morphological and anatomical study, its metrological characteristics determination.
Object of research – air-dry anise hyssop of “Astrakhansky 101” sort harvested in 2012 during the flowering period.
The raw materials morphological and anatomical signs study carried out in accordance with the requirements of general pharmacopoeial articles “Herbs”, “Microscopic and microchemical study technique of medicinal plant raw materials” in the XI edition of the Russian Federation State Pharmacopoeia . Studies and photographs were performed on “Altami BIO 8” microscope (eyepiece – 10× and lenses – 4×, 10×, 40×, 100×) using UCMOS05100KPA digital eyepiece camera; images were processed in Altami Studio program.
The microscopic preparations were prepared for the microscopic analysis: the leaf upper and lower epidermis from the surface; the stem epidermis from the surface; the petal upper and lower epidermis from the surface; the sepal upper and lower epidermis from the surface. No special sample staining methods were used.
When examining leaf preparations from the surface (Figs. 1, 2), it can be seen that the epidermal cells of the upper side have polygonal form with sinuous and strongly tortuous walls, and on the lower side they are strongly sinuous with clearly thickened walls. The сells of the upper epidermis are 25-32 μm long, 8-15 μm wide; the lower one – 23-33 μm in length, 7-16 μm wide. The cuticle on both sides is flat. Stomata is 12-17μm long, 10-15 μm wide located on the lower epidermis with a frequency of 80-150 per mm2, surrounded by two cells of the epidermis, located perpendicular to the stomatal pore (diacytic type). The stomata cells have characteristic lenticular form. 8 essential oil glands (less often – 6) – cells on a short stem, with excreting cells located radially (diameter 47-68 μm), are found mainly on the lower side of the leaf.
Simple hairs are thin-walled ostroconate multicellular with a smooth or warty surface: on the surface of the leaf there are mainly 1-4 cells (up to 125 μm long), up to 6 cells in the nerves and on the hair stalk (up to 350 μm in length). Capitate hairs on a short unicellular stem (4-7 μm), with a rounded unicellular head (height up to 37 μm, head diameter is 15-27 μm). The nerve network is well-developed, the structure of the conducting system includes annulate and spiral vessels (Figure 3).
When examining the micro preparation of the stem epidermis (Figure 4), it can be seen that the cells are polygonal with straight walls, 23-45 μm long, 11- 25 μm wide. There are stomata, glands, small and simple head hairs on the surface, almost the same as on the leaf. Frequency of glands is 8-25 per 1 mm2; head hairs – 7-29 per 1 mm2; simple hairs – 0-35 per 1 mm2.
The petal epidermis from the upper surface has strongly flexuose cell walls, at the base of the petal the cells are more elongated, the cell walls have a sinuous shape (Figure 5).
Closer to the middle, the cells have a length of 35-65 μm, a width of 7-25 μm, a length of 35-115 μm at the base, and a width of 15-21 μm. On the underside of the petal, the cell walls are strongly sinuous, at the base of the petal the cells are elongated, slightly sinuous. In the middle of the petal, the cells have a length of 40-56 μm, a width of 15-25 μm, a length of 45-120 μm at the base, and a width of 12-27 μm. There are glands on the surface on both sides (they are slightly smaller than on the leaf and stalk, 32-50 μm in diameter), the head hairs are the same as on the leaf. Simple hairs with thin walls are sharply conical, located only from the lower side, consist of 1-7 cells (up to 1300 μm in length). Incidence of 1 mm2 from the upper side of the petal: glands – 0-67, head hairs – 25-321, from the bottom side – glands 0-45, head hairs – 0-65, simple hairs – 25-326.
When examining the sepal epidermis material (Fig. 6), cells with strongly sinuous walls are seen from the upper side, at the base they are more even, 19-45 μm long, 9-32 μm wide. Epidermis cells of the lower side with weakly sinuous walls, 25-45 μm in length, 7-23 μm wide. Stem is 12-25 μm long, 7-23 microns wide, practically not found on the upper side. Simple sharp-cone hairs with thin walls on the upper side are one-celled (up to 54 μm), along the edge they are single-, two-celled (up to 600 μm). On the lower epidermis, simple hairs are sharply conical and 1-7-celled (up to 1300 μm) are found twice as often as on the upper epidermis. On the upper side of the sepals (1 mm2) occur with frequency: glands – 25-78, capitate hairs – 0-165, simple hairs – 0-95, stomata – 0-20. On the lower side are found with frequency: glands – 15-55, capitate hairs – 13-125, simple hairs – 120-324.
Round pollen with a diameter of 37-45 μm has 6 holes (Figure 7). Thus, the description of the microscopic features is given on the basis of the “Astrakhansky 101” sort giant hyssop grass sample analysis, which can be used to create normative documentation for medicinal plant raw materials.
1. The giant hyssop grass of “Astrakhansky 101” sort anatomical and diagnostic signs were determined. They include the structure of the upper and lower leaf epidermis from the surface (in particular, the absence of stomata from the upper side of the leaf), the structure of the corolla petals, sepals, pollen grains epidermis.
2. The metrological characteristics of the investigated organ structures are given. Differences in the sizes of the same structures located in different parts of the same organ have been identified.
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