Study of aphyllophoroid fungi of “Oleny” natural park with the help of Altami Studio
Aphyllophoroid fungi are a non-taxonomic ecological and morphological group of fungi. The term “aphyllophoroid fungi” is used among specialists to denote homobasidiomycetes characterized by a non-lamellar hymenophore and are for the most part xylotrophic saprotrophs. The group includes representatives of 17 existing species with smooth, dentate (as in Corticiaceae and Basidiomycetes fungi), needle-shaped (for example,in Hydrozoa) and tubular (but not boletes) (like polyploid fungi) types of hymenophore, as well as transitional variations, for example with labyrinous type. The study of afillophoroid basidiomycetes diversity, which are very important components of forest ecosystems (represent the main species diversity of the niche of xylodestructors), allows to estimate the biological value of the studied community.
The study was conducted in “Oleny” natural park , which is located in the area of Nikolskoe and Sukhodol vilages in the Lipetsk region, its area is about 12 km2. Most of this territory is occupied by agricultural lands, in the intervals there are fragments of the ravine-girder system, various meadow and steppe communities are formed there typical for the forest-steppe of Europe. The nature park belongs to a few protected areas (PAs), where seasonal mycological observations are carried out. So far, no special study of afifulophoroid fungi group has been made in the park.
Materials and methods
Sampling of woody fungi was carried out in the park in September 2016 during the route survey of forest communities (oak forests, aspen trees and maple trees). Determination of the collected material was carried out in the fungi geography and taxonomy laboratory of V.L.Komarov Botanical Institute. A standard microscopy technique was used to prepare temporary cuts of the hymenal layer of samples (there is no need in it with permanent preparations) using reagents of qualitative reaction to cell contents (5% solution of KOH, Cotton Blue solution) and cell wall components of fungi (Meltzer reagent). To uniformly stain Cotton Blue temporary preparation, the sections placed on a slide were heated in the reagent on the alcohol lamp flame for 2 minutes. Light microscopy was carried out with Altami BIO 2 microscope and UCMOS05100KPA Altami camera in VL Komarov Botanical Institute of RAS. Altami Studio program measured the species-specific parameters of sterile and basidional elements of hymenium and spores, as well as pictures of the preparations (Figures 1, 2). For the samples identification European reports were used with the group of basidiomycetes studied (Bernicchia, Gorjón, 2010, Ryvarden, Melo, 2014). The collected material is placed in the Mycological herbarium of RAS Botanical Institute and partly in V.N. Khitrovo Herbarium mycological collection of Orel State University named after I.S. Turgenev.
Results and discussion
As a result of the survey, 53 fungi species of affilophoroid group and one species of heterobasidiomycetes were found. New to the natural park are 39 species, 36 of them are new for Lipetsk region. Finds of Phanerochaete aculeata Hallenb species and Lindtneria panphyliensis Bernicchia & M.J. Larsen became particularly interesting, known in Russia until now only from the nearby territory of Oryol region (Volobuev, 2013). The find of Sistotrema sernanderi should be noted (Litsch.), as it is the first find of the species on the territory of the Central Russian Upland.
In general, according to the number of afillophoroid fungi species that have become new to the natural park and the region, as well as for the rare species that have been encountered, we can conclude that the mycoflora of this region remains poorly studied and requires further research involving additional material.
It is also worth noting that Altami Studio program helped a lot in the research, which has proved itself in biological research and has a wide range of tools for measuring and preliminary image processing.
The study was carried out within the research project of RAS Komarov Botanical Institute called “Biodiversity and spatial structure of fungi and myxomycetes communities in natural and anthropogenic ecosystems” (АААА-А18-118031290108-6)
1. Bernicchia A., Gorjón S. P. 2010. Fungi Europaei. Vol. 12. Corticiaceae s. l. Alassio: Edizioni Candusso. 1008 p.
2. Ryvarden L., Melo I. 2014. Synopsis Fungorum. V. 31. Poroid fungi of Europe. Oslo: Fungiflora. 456 p.
3. Волобуев С. В. 2013. Афиллофоровые грибы лесных экосистем юго-востока Орловской области // Микология и фитопатология. Т. 47. Вып. 4. С. 209–217. [Volobuev S. V. 2013. Afilloforovye griby lesnyh jekosistem jugo-vostoka Orlovskoj oblasti // Mikologija i fitopatologija. T. 47. Vyp. 4. P. 209–217.]